Tuesday, September 27, 2016

Limitations of Supercritical (CO2) Extraction

CO2 extraction vs traditional extraction.

CONs of CO2 extraction:


  • Liquid CO2 behaves as a non-polar solvent, so extraction of polar compounds cannot be done properly; only non-polar and slightly polar organic compounds of low molecular weight are soluble in supercritical fluid
    • Poorly extracted compounds include hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, acetones, esters, terpenes, carboxylic acids, some amino groups
    • Substances that CO2 doesn’t extract at all (insoluble to supercritical) include sugars, proteins, polyphenols, tannins, waxes, inorganic salts, chlorophyll, carotenoids, citric acid, malic acid, high molecular weight compounds
  • Cost is high and affects practicality due to the expense


References:

Essentials of Botanical Extraction: Principles and Applications By Subhash C. Mandal, Vivekananda Mandal, Anup Kumar Das

Flavours, their Encapsulation and Release. INSTITUTO SUPERIOR TÉCNICO TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF LISBON, PORTUGAL

Monday, August 29, 2016

Limits on Oral Potassium in tablets and capsules

The U.S. Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) has established an Adequate Intake (AI) of 4.7 grams/day of potassium in a healthy adult. A tolerable upper limit (UL) was not established for potassium since there was no evidence of adverse effects from a high level of potassium from foods consumed by healthy adults.

Potassium is a food substance and is affirmed as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the U.S. FDA (21 CFR 184.1622) (FDA, 2012a). In October 2000, food containing at least 350 mg potassium and 140 mg or less of sodium was approved by the FDA to have the following health claim on product labeling: "Diets containing foods that are good sources of potassium and low in sodium may reduce the risk of high blood pressure and stroke." (FDA, 2012b; NMCD, 2012).

Some experts suggest that a single dose of potassium should be limited to 500 mg, while a total of 1,500 mg daily is considered safe for general supplementation. This is well within the AI level.

The 99 mg. limit on potassium tablets and capsules is based on a remote risk of a pill damaging the intestinal wall if it releases its content slowly. That risk does not apply to liquid forms, or to powders that are mixed with liquids. While higher amounts are allowable, a long warning is required on all potassium products intended for oral ingestion providing 100 mg or more of the mineral in a capsule or coated tablet form: http://law.justia.com/cfr/title21/21-4.0.1.1.2.7.1.7.html

Wednesday, May 25, 2016

Natural versus Synthetic: Not Always Relevant

Synthetic processes are often irrelevant; the resulting form is the most important consideration. For example, most mammals synthesize ascorbic acid in their livers from blood sugar, so synthetic processes are essential in biological ascorbic acid production and all of their internally produced vitamin C is quite literally synthetically derived. This process is mimicked in commercial production.

This means that synthetic is not a synonym for unnatural; it depends on the process and the end result. If the compound is a synthetic form, such as dl-ascorbic acid, that is not so good. But if it results in a natural form, such as l-carnitine rather than d-carnitine, and mimics the synthesis of that substance in the body, our biology can’t distinguish between the internally and externally produced sources.

"Synthetic" loses its automatically negative connotation when considered in conjunction with these factors because we internally synthesize thousands of compounds every day and only the unnatural forms are presumed to be inherently negative when ingested.

Thursday, April 21, 2016

Free access to natural health options is a basic human right

Free access to natural health options is a basic human right

Suggested Health Principles (“Bill of Rights”)

1. Every person has a basic right to choose natural therapies and control what goes into their body
2. Because of their history of use and safety profiles, natural foods, herbs, and nutrients should be regulated as food rather than as medicinal products
3. Natural foods, herbs, and nutrients sold in capsule or tablet form should be regulated as food supplements rather than as medicinal products
4. Government must bear the burden of proof if restricting access to natural therapies, foods, herbs, nutrients, and related supplements
5. Restrictions must be based only on demonstrable scientific evidence of an unreasonable safety risk
6. Our ability to make informed decisions on natural therapies and what to eat requires free access to scientific information without censorship
7. Restrictions on labeling and commercial speech must be minimal and targeted to avoid unnecessarily reducing consumer options
8. Truthful statements about foods, herbs, and nutrients in any form should include unrestricted accurate information about the prevention and treatment of disease
9. Citizen input and impacts must be considered whenever non-emergency restrictions on natural products and therapies are proposed
10. Governments must consider these rights before regulations are imposed that may restrict citizens’ free access to natural therapies, foods, herbs, nutrients, and related supplements

Calcium and Vitamin D are Safe for Heart Health

Huge study of ½ million adults age 40-69: calcium & D supplements pose no cardiovascular risk (heart attack, etc.) in the UK Biobank study:

fb.me/IOHg07RL

Thursday, September 10, 2015

Stearic acid improves mitochondrial health and function

The fatty acid stearic acid increases the performance of our cellular powerhouses, the mitochondria inside cells. They are responsible for cellular energy, metabolism (fats, amino acids), and health (apoptosis; normal cell death). Not only our energy levels, but general health and longevity depend on cellular mitochondrial health.

Now a signaling effect of stearic acid has been shown to improve mitochondrial health in an animal model, with the same mechanism existing in people suggesting that it may have benefits in humans, as well. Mitochondrial defects are associated with various disorders affecting nerves, muscles, and brain, including neurodegenerative and aging problems.

Stearic acid is a fatty acid normally found in our diet, and it has been proven to NOT contribute to heart disease like other saturated fats. Much has been written about stearic acid, including numerous unbalanced accounts of it being unhealthy in minute amounts based largely on unrepresentative test tube studies, despite robust evidence that it is a common dietary fat consumed in significant quantities (up to 10 grams a day) as part of a healthy diet and a constituent of virtually all natural fats and oils that has shown positive benefits in numerous human studies.

http://medicalxpress.com/news/2015-07-fatty-acid-cellular-powerhouse.html

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v525/n7567/full/nature14601.html

http://honestnutrition.blogspot.com/2008/04/myths-about-stearate-risks.html

Thursday, June 04, 2015

California poised to allow licensed naturopathic physicians to prescribe and do minor procedures

Sixteen states currently license naturopathic physicians as medical practitioners, plus the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico. One of these states - California - is moving a bill that would expand the scope of practice of licensed NDs to allow them to prescribe certain low-risk pharmaceuticals (Class IV, V, and unclassified drugs), perform superficial skin treatments (for lacerations, lesions, abrasions), and order a wider range of medical imaging. Naturally, the medical establishment in California opposes this bill, though it admits there is a shortage of physicians in the state. For more information: http://www.medpagetoday.com/PublicHealthPolicy/WorkForce/51917?xid=nl_mpt_DHE_2015-06-04&eun=g218319d0r