Friday, January 20, 2017
Wednesday, December 21, 2016
Friday, October 07, 2016
Tuesday, September 27, 2016
CO2 extraction vs traditional extraction.
CONs of CO2 extraction:
- Liquid CO2 behaves as a non-polar solvent, so extraction of polar compounds cannot be done properly; only non-polar and slightly polar organic compounds of low molecular weight are soluble in supercritical fluid
- Poorly extracted compounds include hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, acetones, esters, terpenes, carboxylic acids, some amino groups
- Substances that CO2 doesn’t extract at all (insoluble to supercritical) include sugars, proteins, polyphenols, tannins, waxes, inorganic salts, chlorophyll, carotenoids, citric acid, malic acid, high molecular weight compounds
- Cost is high and affects practicality due to the expense
Essentials of Botanical Extraction: Principles and Applications By Subhash C. Mandal, Vivekananda Mandal, Anup Kumar Das
Flavours, their Encapsulation and Release. INSTITUTO SUPERIOR TÉCNICO TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF LISBON, PORTUGAL
Monday, August 29, 2016
The U.S. Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) has established an Adequate Intake (AI) of 4.7 grams/day of potassium in a healthy adult. A tolerable upper limit (UL) was not established for potassium since there was no evidence of adverse effects from a high level of potassium from foods consumed by healthy adults.
Potassium is a food substance and is affirmed as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the U.S. FDA (21 CFR 184.1622) (FDA, 2012a). In October 2000, food containing at least 350 mg potassium and 140 mg or less of sodium was approved by the FDA to have the following health claim on product labeling: "Diets containing foods that are good sources of potassium and low in sodium may reduce the risk of high blood pressure and stroke." (FDA, 2012b; NMCD, 2012).
Some experts suggest that a single dose of potassium should be limited to 500 mg, while a total of 1,500 mg daily is considered safe for general supplementation. This is well within the AI level.
The 99 mg. limit on potassium tablets and capsules is based on a remote risk of a pill damaging the intestinal wall if it releases its content slowly. That risk does not apply to liquid forms, or to powders that are mixed with liquids. While higher amounts are allowable, a long warning is required on all potassium products intended for oral ingestion providing 100 mg or more of the mineral in a capsule or coated tablet form: http://law.justia.com/cfr/title21/21-220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.html
Wednesday, May 25, 2016
Synthetic processes are often irrelevant; the resulting form is the most important consideration. For example, most mammals synthesize ascorbic acid in their livers from blood sugar, so synthetic processes are essential in biological ascorbic acid production and all of their internally produced vitamin C is quite literally synthetically derived. This process is mimicked in commercial production.
This means that synthetic is not a synonym for unnatural; it depends on the process and the end result. If the compound is a synthetic form, such as dl-ascorbic acid, that is not so good. But if it results in a natural form, such as l-carnitine rather than d-carnitine, and mimics the synthesis of that substance in the body, our biology can’t distinguish between the internally and externally produced sources.
"Synthetic" loses its automatically negative connotation when considered in conjunction with these factors because we internally synthesize thousands of compounds every day and only the unnatural forms are presumed to be inherently negative when ingested.