Wednesday, September 06, 2017

Fish Oils: ethyl ester or triglyceride or...?

Most fish oils today are molecularly distilled, changing them from their natural triglyceride forms to ethyl ester (esterified) forms.
Anything stronger than a natural strength fish oil (up to about 30% EPA+DHA combined) is typically concentrated by molecular (vacuum) distillation to allow vaporizing at low temperatures, in the process converting to the ethyl ester form. This allows separation of the fatty acid constituents in order to add back some of the desired omega-3 fatty acids in order to concentrate them up to 60% or higher levels of the oil. This is accomplished by removing undesired fractions that were separated by the distillation, such as cholesterol, triglycerides, and various other fatty acids.

Because of the warming oceans, the naturally occurring amount of omega-3 fatty acids in most fish have declined from historically about 30% to somewhat less. Due to this change, most fish oil supplements containing 180 mg. of EPA and 120 mg. of DHA (300 mg. combined in a 1,000 mg. fish oil capsule) now need to spike the potencies by adding additional EPA and DHA fractionated from the original oils by molecular distillation. It is now unusual to find even a low strength fish oil capsule that is not at least partially molecularly distilled into ethyl ester forms. 

Some of these distilled oils are then partially reconverted to a triglyceride form in a process called reconversion that involves adding back 20% or more triglycerides to the esterified fatty acids to try to reattach the triglycerides to the fatty acids with enzymes. This imperfectly produces a highly processed combination of both triglyceride and mono-and-diglyceride forms of omega-3 with many of the original oil’s natural constituents deliberately removed (cholesterol, omega-6, omega-9, stearates, et al). This newly engineered combination is called a reconverted triglyceride form (rTG) containing typically at least 60% triglyceride form fatty acids that’s distinct from the original triglyceride (TG) form, but is as far from the original triglyceride form as can be produced by intentional chemical manipulation. Numerous brands offer this rTG form and inaccurately call it a natural triglyceride form, when it is in fact far removed from that oil.

This is done because of a prevailing and largely disproven belief that the natural triglyceride form is best. That's certainly untrue for cardiology and the form has recently been shown to be largely irrelevant to absorption and efficacy in general. 

Tuesday, August 08, 2017

Is Carrageenan Safe or Dangerous?

Undenatured carrageenan is a natural stabilizer, binding agent, and emulsifier used in products such as toothpaste in place of SLS and other truly undesirable ingredients commonly used in mass market products. It is also used in some vegan-friendly softgel capsule material as an alternative to animal-derived gelatin.

There is an Internet myth that carrageenan is unsafe; due primarily to confusion with a so-called “denatured carrageenan” polymer that is actually poligeenan, a heavily processed low molecular weight seaweed derivative currently used only as an x-ray imaging component. Poligeenan, previously used in pharmaceuticals, is quite different from the undenatured high molecular weight material that we use. Due to the safety concerns over poligeenan, regulations routinely require the carrageenan added to foods to have high molecular weight to ensure its integrity. But there are no unresolved safety concerns with undenatured carrageenan. 

Carrageenan has been thoroughly vetted by national and international public health authorities over a number of decades, even recently in response to the ongoing blogger-driven controversies, so there is no remaining basis of concern. Even its use in infant formulas was recently reconfirmed to be safe, and it’s helpful in distributing the nutrients more evenly to avoid the settling out that could otherwise cause uneven nutrient intake when a bottle is only partially consumed. 

After repeated investigations, the evidence for carrageenan safety is stronger than ever. Carrageenan is extremely safe and present in a number of healthy seaweeds; only the denatured form of carrageenan - a drug - is toxic. 


·        Public health and carrageenan regulation: a review and analysis. Borowitzka et al. (eds.), Nineteenth International Seaweed Symposium. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4020-9619-8_8. Developments in Applied Phycology.

Friday, January 20, 2017

Is Sorbitol Natural?

Sorbitol is a "sugar alcohol" that occurs naturally in various fruits (apples, peaches, nectarines, plums, grapes, cherries, apricots, pears, rose hips, berries, dates, coconut) at levels of 1% or more. Wasabi can contain up to 11%, and common dried fruits (prunes, pears) almost the same level. Of course, beer would be expected to have small amounts, as well. 

Sorbitol can be commericially produced from glucose. Non-GMO sources are available. 

In higher doses (30-50 grams) sorbitol can be laxative, but it is a useful non-cariogenic sweetener that doesn't promote dental caries (cavities). 

Wednesday, December 21, 2016

Is Aromatherapy Safe for Pets?

The skin of animals is much more sensitive than people’s, so essential oils should always be used with caution.  Don’t use essential oils directly on the fur/skin of cats. While cats are considered more sensitive to the oils than dogs, both are far more sensitive than us, so even a little in an enclosed space could be overwhelming to them. 

The oils are considered potentially harmful to dogs and cats if eaten. For example, eucalyptus oil can cause stomach upset, and in high doses liver toxicity. Eucalyptus oil can also damage the ear canal of cats if applied directly. Other oils may have similar or different risks. 

Birds are not advised to be near aromatherapy oils at all, as they are potentially even more delicate in regard to smells than dogs and cats. 

Diffusing is likely safer than direct topical appliucation or letting the pet actually consume the oil, but it still represents some risk depending on the type and amount of oil used, the room size, the diffusion method, and the amount of fresh air entering and circulating in the room. Never diffuse essential oils diluted into carrier oils; always use 100% pure essential oils only. 

Be cautious and safe with essential oils around pets by avoiding excess exposure, concentrations of aromas, or opportunities for the animals to lick or otherwise consume them! If in doubt, don't do it. 

What is the Ketogenic Diet and What Foods are Acceptable?

The ketogenic diet is a low carbohydrate (carb) diet designed to change the energy source of the brain from sugar to fats (ketones) and to increase the use of fats as an energy source in the body as a whole by severely restricting the intake of dietary carbohydrates. It overlaps a lot with the Paleo diet in that the ketogenic diet consists largely of meats and fats.

For the ketogenic diet, fish are good choices. Full-fat dairy is allowed, but fermented and unsweetened ones are preferred. Fruits are quite limited though, to small amounts of berries, plus lemons and limes in moderation, and olives and avocado (these two are fatty fruits, rather than sugary). Vegetables consist mostly of non-root ones because those have more carbs. Legumes are largely avoided, except small amounts of green beans and peas.  Nuts and seeds are used in moderation as they have some carbs; but avoid peanuts, which are legumes, not nuts. 

Fats represent most calories in the ketogenic diet: avocado oil, coconut oil, olive oil, butter, cocoa butter, MCT oil, and nut oils in moderation (i.e. walnut, sesame). Eggs and unsweetened gelatin are fine. Processed foods and condiments that have added sugars or carbohydrates should be avoided. Sugar alcohols are also avoided; stevia is acceptable, but watch for added carbohydrates in some stevia products.

Unsweetened whey protein isolate (not concentrate) has the least amount of lactose of the milk proteins; unsweetened egg white protein is also fine. Though legumes are avoided if they have carbs, unsweetened pea protein or soy protein isolates are acceptable options in the ketogenic diet.  

Friday, October 07, 2016

What is Taurine and how is it made?

Taurine is a nature-identical/natural form amino acid that’s commercially synthesized from common chemicals. It’s made from the reaction of sulfuric acid with mono-ethanol amine; also known as ethanolamine; which is an amino alcohol that’s also part of phospholipids, like the phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) in lecithin, that are important components of cell membranes. 

Taurine, a sulphur-containing amino acid, is the most abundant intracellular amino acid in humans, and is involved in numerous biological and physiological functions, including bile production and heart health. Once we pass infancy, we routinely synthesize taurine in our bodies from the amino acids methionine and cysteine with the aid of vitamin B6. That makes it a nonessential amino acid for most of us; though specific groups of individuals are at risk for taurine deficiency and may benefit from supplementation. 

I personally take 1,000 mg of taurine twice a day for heart heath now, as I have had troubling arrhythmia incidents send me to the emergency room and am medically at risk for progressively worse outcomes over time. It has shown effectiveness in increasing exercise capability in heart failure patients and arterial compliance to nitric oxide to support healthy blood pressure. I also take l-carnitine, olive leaf extract, magnesium, l-citrulline, Pycnogenol, grape seed extract, hawthorn leaf and flower extract, a good multivitamin, and other supplements to support my cardiovascular health and hold off that disturbing prognosis as long as possible. 

Taurine has no d- or l- forms, similar to glycine but unlike most amino acids that have different optical rotations in distinct natural and synthetic forms. All taurine is the natural form, even if produced by chemical synthesis, whether commercially or in our bodies. 

Tuesday, September 27, 2016

Limitations of Supercritical (CO2) Extraction

CO2 extraction vs traditional extraction.

CONs of CO2 extraction:

  • Liquid CO2 behaves as a non-polar solvent, so extraction of polar compounds cannot be done properly; only non-polar and slightly polar organic compounds of low molecular weight are soluble in supercritical fluid
    • Poorly extracted compounds include hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, acetones, esters, terpenes, carboxylic acids, some amino groups
    • Substances that CO2 doesn’t extract at all (insoluble to supercritical) include sugars, proteins, polyphenols, tannins, waxes, inorganic salts, chlorophyll, carotenoids, citric acid, malic acid, high molecular weight compounds
  • Cost is high and affects practicality due to the expense


Essentials of Botanical Extraction: Principles and Applications By Subhash C. Mandal, Vivekananda Mandal, Anup Kumar Das