Thursday, January 18, 2007

Another Decade of AIDS (HIV)

In 1995 a protocol for nutritional support of people who were HIV positive was published by a nutrition group headed by Willis H. Reisen, PhD, who received his PhD in biochemistry from the University of Wisconsin in the 1950's and was board certified as a clinical nutritionist in the early 1990's. Dr. Reisen, and his colleague David B. Tardy, self-published their short pamphlet, A Decade of AIDS, after a ten-year period during which they claimed that not a single one of the approximately one hundred HIV-positive people following this protocol had gone from HIV-positive to full-blown AIDS. (Both of these good gentlemen have since passed away at a ripe age.)

I am providing the recommendations of their original protocol in a very short form largely for historical purposes, but also to open people's minds to the possibilities of using nutrition to complement conventional medical care. I'm also providing independent scientific references that I have dug up to document the current science backing up their original protocol, which I present below.

A bit of explanation of the supplemental options was also added by me, along with a few examples of modern formulas providing these nutrients more efficiently than those available on the market some 10-12 years ago.

Please remember that this protocol was designed to be used under a physician's care, and should NOT be used as a substitute for medical care!

HIV nutritional support protocol (to be used only under the medical supervision of a physician):

This protocol has traditionally (since 1985) been used by some clinical nutritionists for the nutritional support of people with HIV for nutritional restoration of the digestive and immune systems. Use this protocol only as directed by your physician.

Nutritional Protocol:

  • Probiotics include acidophilus, bifidus, and other ‘beneficial bacteria’ that are healthy for the human gut. If you are not using an antibiotic prescription drug, simply take a good quality, strong probiotic formula as directed on the label. If you are currently taking an antibiotic prescription drug, supplement with a good quality, strong probiotic formula an hour or two after each dose of antibiotic, then continue taking the probiotics for some weeks after the antibiotic course is over.
  • Take a good hi-potency multiple vitamin to provide basic nutritional supplementation.1, 2, 17-33, 45
  • Take antioxidants to increase detoxification and glutathione production. Cysteine or NAC 3,4, whey protein isolate 34-36, GliSODin ™ 37, 39-44 Silymarin (milk thistle extract) VitaBerry™ or other hi-ORAC antioxidant formula Selenium, preferably selenomethionine, 200-400 mcg/day. 5-8, 39
  • Do a Vitamin C flush, maintaining appropriate levels: 9-11, 38
  • Natural carotenoids 46-48 AIDS-related weight loss and chronic diarrhea ("HIV enteropathy") may respond to a gluten-free diet. 12
  • Progressive resistance training (weight training) and exercise may be used as an alternative or adjunct to steroids. 13,14
  • DHEA may alleviate fatigue and depression (200-500 mg per day for eight weeks). DHEA supplementation had no effect on CD4 cell (helper T-cell) counts or testosterone levels. 15,16

1. Ince S. Vitamin supplements may help delay onset of AIDS. Med Tribune 1993;9:18.
2. Fawzi WW, Msamanga G, Hunter D, et al. Randomized trial of vitamin supplements in relation to vertical transmission of HIV-1 in Tanzania. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2000;23:246–54.
3. Roederer M, Staal FJ, Raju PA, et al. Cytokine-stimulated human immunodeficiency virus replication is inhibited by N-acetyl-L-cysteine. Proc Natl Acad Sci 1990;87:4884–8.
4. Herzenberg LA, De Rosa SC, Dubs JG, et al. Glutathione deficiency is associated with impaired survival in HIV disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci 1997;94:1967–72.
5. Baum MK, Shor-Posner G, Lai S, et al. High risk of HIV-related mortality is associated with selenium deficiency. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol 1997;15:370–4.
6. Olmsted L, Schrauzer GN, Flores-Arce M, Dowd J. Selenium supplementation of symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus infected patients. Biol Trace Elem Res 1989;25:89–96.
7. Chariot P, Perchet H, Monnet I. Dilated cardiomyopathy in HIV-infected patients [letter; comment]. N Engl J Med 1999;340:732 (discussion 733–5).
8. Zazzo JF, Lafont A, Darwiche E, et al. Is non-obstructive myocardiopathy (NOMC) in AIDS selenium-deficiency related? In: Neve J, Favier A, eds. Selenium in biology and medicine. W. DeGruyter & Co.: Berlin New York, 1988, 281–2.
9. Harakeh S, Jariwalla RJ, Pauling L. Suppression of human immunodeficiency virus replication by ascorbate in chronically and acutely infected cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci 1990;87:7245–9.
10. Tang AM, Graham NMH, Saah AJ. Effects of micronutrient intake on survival in human immunodeficiency type 1 infection. Am J Epidemiol 1996;143:1244–56.
11. Cathcart RF III. Vitamin C in the treatment of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Med Hypotheses 1984;14:423–33.
12. Nellen H, Flores G, Wacher N. Treatment of human immunodeficiency virus enteropathy with a gluten-free diet. Arch Intern Med 2000;160:244 [letter].
13. Roubenoff R, McDermott A, Weiss L, et al. Short-term progressive resistance training increases strength and lean body mass in adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus. AIDS 1999;13:231–9.
14. Mustafa T, Sy FS, Macera CA, et al. Association between exercise and HIV disease progression in a cohort of homosexual men. Ann Epidemiol 1999;9:127–31.
15. Ferrando SJ, Rabkin JG, Poretsky L. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) and testosterone: relation to HIV illness stage and progression over one year. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 1999;22:146–54.
16. Rabkin JG, Ferrando SJ, Wagner GJ, Rabkin R. DHEA treatment for HIV + patients: effects on mood, androgenic and anabolic parameters. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2000;25:53–68.
17. Semba RD, Graham NMH, Caiaffa WT, et al. Increased mortality associated with vitamin A deficiency during human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. Arch Intern Med 1993;153:2149–54.
18. Semba RD, Miotti PG, Chiphangwi JD, et al. Maternal vitamin A deficiency and mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1. Lancet 1994;343:1593–7.
19. Coutsoudis A, Pillay K, Spooner E, et al. Randomized trial testing the effect of vitamin A supplementation on pregnancy outcomes and early mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission in Durban, South Africa. South African Vitamin A Study Group. AIDS 1999;13:1517–24.
20. Kennedy CM, Coutsoudis A, Kuhn L, et al. Randomized controlled trial assessing the effect of vitamin A supplementation on maternal morbidity during pregnancy and postpartum among HIV-infected women. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2000;24:37–44.
21. Fawzi WW, et al. (2004). A randomized trial of multivitamin supplements and HIV disease progression and mortality. N Engl J Med 351, 23–32
22. Coutsoudis A, Bobat RA, Coovadia HM, et al. The effects of vitamin A supplementation on the morbidity of children born to HIV-infected women. Am J Public Health 1995;85:1076–81.
23. Kanter AS, Spencer DC, Steinberg MH, et al. Supplemental vitamin B and progression to AIDS and death in black South African patients infected with HIV. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 1999;21:252–3 [letter].
24. Butterworth RF, Gaudreau C, Vincelette J, et al. Thiamine deficiency in AIDS. Lancet 1991;338:1086.
25. Baum MK, Mantero-Atienza E, Shor-Posner G, et al. Association of vitamin B6 status with parameters of immune function in early HIV-1 infection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 1991;4:1122–32.
26. Tang AM, Graham NMH, Saah AJ. Effects of micronutrient intake on survival in human immunodeficiency type 1 infection. Am J Epidemiol 1996;143:1244–56.
27. Boudes P, Zittoun J, Sobel A. Folate, vitamin B12, and HIV infection. Lancet 1990;335:1401–2.
28. Murray MF. Niacin as a potential AIDS preventive factor. Med Hypotheses 1999;53:375–9.
29. Murray MF, Srinivasan A. Nicotinamide inhibits HIV-1 in both acute and chronic in vitro infection. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1995;210:954–9.
30. Tang AM, Graham NMH, Saah AJ. Effects of micronutrient intake on survival in human immunodeficiency type 1 infection. Am J Epidemiol 1996;143:1244–56.
31. Graham NMH, Saah AJ. Effects of micronutrient intake on survival in human immunodeficiency type 1 infection. Am J Epidemiol 1996;143:1244–56.
32. Fabris N, Mocchegiani E, Galli M, et al. AIDS, zinc deficiency, and thymic hormone failure. JAMA 1988;259:839–40.
33. Mocchegiani E, Veccia S, Ancarani F, et al. Benefit of oral zinc supplementation as an adjunct to zidovudine (AZT) therapy against opportunistic infections in AIDS. Int J Immunopharmacol 1995;17:719–27.
34. Micke P, Beeh KM, Buhl R. Effects of long-term supplementation with whey proteins on plasma glutathione levels of HIV-infected patients. Eur J Nutr 2002;41:12–8.
35. Wong KF, Middleton N, Montgomery M, et al. Immunostimulation of murine spleen cells by materials associated with bovine milk protein fractions. J Dairy Sci 1998;81:1825–32.
36. Minehira K, Inoue S, Nonaka M, et al. Effects of dietary protein type on oxidized cholesterol-induced alteration in age-related modulation of lipid metabolism and indices of immune function in rats. Biochim Biophys Acta 2000;1483:141–53.
37. Muth CM, Glenz Y, Klaus M, Radermacher P, Speit G, Leverve X. Sektion. Influence of an orally effective SOD on hyperbaric oxygen-related cell damage. Free Radic Res. 2004 Sep;38(9):927-32. PMID: 15621710
38. Stephensen CB, et al. Vitamins C and E in adolescents and young adults with HIV infection. Am J Clin Nut. Vol. 83, No. 4, 754-759, April 2006
39. Foster HD. How HIV-1 causes AIDS: implications for prevention and treatment. Med Hypotheses. 2004;62(4):549-53. Review. PMID: 15050105
40. The effects of an orally effective SOD (Glisodin) on AIDS West African patients in a randomized double-blinded clinical study.
41. Dugas B (2002) Glisodin®, a nutraceutical product that promotes the oral delivery of superoxide dismutase. Free Radic Biol Med 33: S64
42. Vouldoukis I, Conti M, Kolb JP, et al.(2003) Induction of Th1-dependent immunity by an orally effective melon superoxide dismutase extract. Curr Trends Immunol 5: 141-5
43. Vouldoukis I, Conti M, Krauss P, et al. (2004) Supplementation with gliadin-combined plant superoxide dismutase extract promotes antioxidant defences and protects against oxidative stress. Phytother Res 18 (12): 957-62
44. Vouldoukis I, Lacan D, Kamate C, et al. (2004) Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of a Cucumis melo LC. extract rich in superoxide dismutase activity. J Ethnopharmacol 94 (1): 67-75
45. Jiamton S, et al. (2003). A randomized trial of the impact of multiple micronutrient supplementation on mortality among HIV-infected individuals living in Bangkok. AIDS 17, 2461–2469
46. Austin J. A community randomized controlled clinical trial of mixed carotenoids and micronutrient supplementation of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Eur J Clin Nutr 60: 1266-1276; advance online publication, May 24, 2006; doi:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602447
47. Baum MK, Shor-Posner G, Lu Y, Rosner B, Sauberlich HE, Fletcher MA et al. (1995). Micronutrients and HIV-1 disease progression. AIDS 9, 1051–1056 48. Stephensen CB (2003). Vitamin A, beta-carotene, and mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Nutr Rev 61, 280–284

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